Abstract:The interaction analysis between human being and low frequency electric and magnetic field generated by high voltage transmission lines is an important topic for the determination of possible biological effect. A probable risk for leukemia, neuropsychological disorder, cancer, Alzheimer and reproductive outcomes has been reported due to this exposure for peoples living in the vicinity of electrical substations and electrical workers, these risks depend on the intensity, distance and time of exposure.\nIn order to evaluate the induced current in a human body, it is necessary to characterize the spatial distribution of the electric and magnetic field based on the charge simulation method. We also propose a method to reduce the adverse effects caused by these radiated fields by mitigating their intensity. \nThe results obtained by means of computer programs developed by author in MATLAB environment are compared by the limit values given by International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for demonstrating the degree of danger due to the induced current and have a certain guidance function for exposed human being to high voltage electrical substations to ensure their safety.
Abstract:This paper provide a comparative analysis of two common control configurations used to control the top and bottom product of binary distillation column. Wood and Berry model has been considered as the model of distillation column and the internal model controller is designed considering a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Virtual Inputs techniques. The first technique can realize the decoupling of under-actuated processes and wipe out unrealizable factors by introducing compensation terms, affecting the dynamic of the system. Moreover, the SVD technique requires the use of a non-diagonal filter, which makes the control system more complex facing of high-dimensional systems. The second technique is used to control in parallel on the modeled process and its model in real time, in case of more manipulated and less number of control variables, which is simple and robust for the construction of the controller. Performance evaluation of two different controllers such as internal model controller (IMC) based on SVD and on Virtual Inputs has been carried out in this paper. Set point regulation and robustness of the controller is evaluated.
Abstract:Recently, in many industrial processes research has picked up a fervent place and a particular importance in the area of fault diagnosis of electrical machines, in fact, a fault prognosis has become almost indispensable. The need of a mathematical model of three-phase induction machine, suitable for the simulation of machines behaviour under fault conditions, has received considerable attention. This paper addresses an accurate model for three-phase squirrel cage induction motors, based on coupled magnetic circuit theory, capable to take into account any conditions of the machine like stator and/or rotor faulty conditions. The exactitude of the model is due to the use of the real geometry of the machine together with the physical layout of all windings. Moreover, the detailed depiction of the machine permits to determine new accurate formulas of inductances, such as, the self-inductances of the rotor loops, stator coils, as well as the mutual inductances between the stator coils and rotor loops. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the model, the case of broken rotor bars as a source of rotor electrical asymmetry was studied. Experimental results show that the proposed model predicts the induction machine behaviour with a good accuracy.
Abstract:This paper examines the practical application of Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm for vibrating feeder with an electromagnetic actuator. In the base of this practical application are two microcontrollers STM32F407, one for digital data acquisition and implementation of the signal envelope detection and the other for implementation of the controller algorithms. Linearization of the well-known nonlinear system model and discretization of adopted linear system model has been performed. The linearized model has been experimentally verified. It has been proposed an algorithm for the envelope detection of the trough movement signal. This algorithm is made for concrete application in vibratory feeders, but its principle of operation is practically applicable for all the low dynamic processes. A comparison has been made for the obtained experimental results of the system with the feedback for the MPC and the PI controller. The frequency characteristics of the system with feedback have been recorded and its stability has been confirmed.
Abstract:Background: Asthma and Type 1 diabetes (T1D) are chronic inflammatory diseases where Th2 and Th1 cells play important roles. Treg and Th17 cells play role in development of both diseases. \nAim: NK cells are divided in NK1 and NK2 cells similar to Th cells. IL-10 and IL-17 do also play role in many diseases. We aimed to show role of NK cytokines in pathogenesis of both diseases.\nMaterials and Methods: Isolated NKs of subjects with T1D (n:3), allergic asthma (n:4) and controls (n:3) were cultured with IL-2, IL-15, IL-2+IL-15 and without stimulation for 1 to 5 days. IFN-? was determined by ELISA; IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 by Multiplex bead immunoassay. \nResults: IL-4 in T1D after 24 hours decreased compared to controls. Similar decrease was observed after 5 days in unstimulated and IL-15 conditions. IL-10 was lower in asthmatics compared to controls by IL-15 after 24 hours. IL-10 increased in controls by IL-2 after 5 days compared to T1D. IL-17 decreased without stimulation after 24 hours in T1D compared to controls. IFN-? in T1D increased at both periods under IL-15 and IL-2+IL-15 stimulations compared to other groups. \nConclusion: NK cells in asthma and T1D show cytokine profiles similar to T lymhocytes.
Abstract:Node identity theft in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a vital issue in security, which can\nbe misused by attackers to gain control of network resources as they can pretend to be a legitimate node. This\nissue becomes more challenging when it comes to clustered WSN which is more threatened by eavesdropping\nand impersonation due to centralized controlling by cluster head and shared wireless medium. Therefore,\ncurrent research is based on designing an intelligent routing strategy to provide secure communication in a\ncluster of sensors. In this context, initially a robust cluster head selection model is designed and thereafter a\nmultistage authentication algorithm is built based on sensor energy, position, network reputation and other\nparameters. Eventually, the proposed intelligent routing protocol establishes the authenticity of any sensor\nparticipating in network communication within WSN, minimizing the probability of various security\nbreaches by malicious attacker. From the experimental analysis, it is found that better results are achieved\nfrom the proposed system.
Abstract:The aim of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensorial properties of dehydrated cheese during the storage. A mixed experimental design 2×2×3 was adopted. In this design, two qualitative variables were analyzed (type of pouches made out of polyethylene and aluminium) and atmosphere type (air, vacuum and nitrogen); and as a quantitative variable, the drying temperature of 50 and 60 °C. The moisture content and the water activity in the cheese samples ranged from 0.686 to 1.384% and from 0.611 to 0.527, respectively. The ∆E values ranged from 1 to 7 for all storage conditions and were closest to the initial value. These results indicated that the storage conditions did not significantly affected the color difference of product. The analysis of variance indicated that the storage conditions did not affected the protein content, sodium chloride and fat content values of cheese samples at the end of the storage period. The cheese samples dehydrated at 60 °C and packaged in aluminium pouches under vacuum conditions maintained the best physicochemical parameters and did not show significant difference with the cheese samples at the end of drying process.
Abstract:Intensive agricultural activities have been shown to have negative effects on wildlife in agro-ecosystems. In this research, we determined the impacts of different agricultural practices on invertebrate diversity in Cypriot olive groves. The changes in invertebrate fauna and diversity in high and low altitude olive groves were compared. Invertebrate samplings of the canopy, understorey vegetation and soil surface were performed over an eight month period. During the surveys a total number of 12837 arthropods were collected. The most abundant invertebrate taxa were Coleoptera, Isopoda and Hymenoptera. A significant difference in arthropod abundance was found due to agricultural practices from the olive tree canopy samples. The number of arthropods and their species richness were significantly higher in low altitude uncultivated olive groves compared to other three management regimes. The results have shown that different agricultural practices significantly influenced the abundance and diversity of arthropods. The high degree of physical manipulation and inputs of pesticides and fertilizers, contributed to the loss of invertebrate abundance and biodiversity.
Abstract:Greyfield formations are unused housing zones manufactured with commercial purposes without considering the needs of its community. These kind of formations force the thresholds of urban resilience in terms of ecologic, economic and social factors of its area. \nThis study aims at dealing with the formation of greyfields in Kyrenia, studying ecological-economical-social issues, evaluating views of experts, community and revealing a road map for an analytic approach towards a wise urban growth. In this direction, the study; develops within the scope of the research question on how to use the smart growth strategies for making the greyfields usable which are formed by the expansion of urban-areas towards rural-areas. \nThe obtained data from a survey and field studies reveal that greyfields in North Cyprus spread from Kyrenia towards rural areas. The study reveals an evaluation on effects of the urban sprawl on rural areas and the fact that the reason for its enlargement is associated with the issues of urban sprawl. \nIt also reveals the lack of planning precautions and institutional sanctions in the formations of greyfield sand the necessity of guidance of a sustainable urban development in line with smart growth principles.
Abstract:The design phenomenon shows changes according to every periods´ needs. The design approaches came to light through form, material, colour, tissue and function of design process in line with arising needs and developments. Depending on the cultural differences and aesthetic concerns of today, the changes and differences in the phenomenon of product, architecture and urban designs seek ground for original ideas. These original ideas are the approaches that are; Pragmatic design that acquires form by using materials through trial and error; Iconic design moving from the accepted forms by interpretation of symbols or signs; Canonical design that obtainse result by moving geometrically in ways such as grid, axis systems, modulation, measure, rate; Analogical design which shows an approach based on establishing similarities between two objects; Parametic design which is created with formulas in the direction of measure, angle and thickness principles. In these approaches, the analogical design draws attention not only with cultural, aesthetic motives but also with nature references.Besides the cultural and aesthetic references, the nature references also attract attention. It is possible to see inspirations from nature in the design processes of human-nature interaction from historical process until now. The biomimesis design process approaches have been emphasized systematically as a result of works among disciplines of current technology and biological science. In order to find solutions for decrease of biodiversity, pollution and issues of ecosystem, the nature experience shows itself in areas of biomimesis, product, architecture and urban designs in which nature-focused invasions are basically being imitated. By presenting a sustainable environment the nature-focused designs has set its own framework through examining forms of different nature dynamics (scale, function, formation process). It can be seen that designs are made real by adhering to the resolution of forms, understanding and interpretation of nature and by embracing fractal designs with the effort of creating a sustainable environment. In the study, emphasis was basically put on the revealed nature-based design approaches. The design processes of Biomimesis have been addressed in this article. It reveals the role of fractal parameters in the design process and examines the usage of biomimesis approaches. By drawing attention to the importance of the studying and understanding the internal dynamics, the contribution of the inspiration of nature along with fractal concept to the design process is being examined.