Abstract:Awareness of global warming and continuous increase in global electricity energy consumption has drawn attention towards the solar photovoltaic system. Building integrated solar photovoltaic (BIPV) systems are gaining their popularity in solar market as they are capable of making a building self-powered. BIPV system performance depends on the local irradiance conditions. Reduced efficiency of shaded PV array is a significant obstacle in the rapid growth of BIPV system in urban areas. Hence it becomes essential to analyze and compare the efficiency enhancement methods. This work mainly focuses on the efficiency enhancement methods that incorporate modification in the power electronic circuits. Different types of efficiency enhancement methods for partially shaded PV arrays have been simulated using Matlab software. The results are compared and analyzed to find the suitability in a smart BIPV system. After careful analysis an efficiency enhancement method based on string equalization strategy using supercapacitor is proposed. It is observed that the efficiency, stability and response of the BIPV system has been improved by the proposed efficiency enhancement methods.
Abstract:The phosphate industry is one of the main sectors of the economy of Morocco. However, it generates millions of tons of waste annually, especially phosphate sludge, which spreads over large areas to the detriment of arable land. In this study, we propose phosphate-solubilizing bacteria as an innovative and ecological strategy for the solubilization of phosphate sludge, which could contribute to re-exploitation of this sludge and an end to its spread. Two bacterial isolates, PS1 and PS2, were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on the studied sludges and identified as Sphingobacterium suaedae T47 and Bacillus cereus 263AG5\'. The two bacteria were able to solubilize the tricalcium phosphate and phosphate sludge in NBRIP and NBRIP-PS solid and liquid media, respectively. Inoculation of washed phosphate sludge by PS1 and PS2 bacteria in a microcosm test increased the available Olsen-P from 5.85 ppm to 50.95 ppm and 41.27 ppm, respectively. In the case of non-washed phosphate sludge, the available Olsen-P was also increased from 47.8 ppm to 61.93 ppm and 59.24 ppm, respectively. The studied bacteria were also able to produce indole acetic acid, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, H2S, and CO2. Twenty percent of the phosphate sludge is the optimal percentage that stimulates the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, and it had significantly the same effect as the agricultural soil. Inoculation of PS1 and PS2 bacteria significantly increased plant growth, especially PS1 bacteria.\nThe studied PSBs PS1 and PS2 have good potential for the valorisation of Moroccan phosphate sludge.
Abstract:Distilled water plays an important role at various industries; but production of it requires an external heat source which increases pollution as well as cost.The Internal Combustion Engine generates huge quantity of exhaust gas with high range of temperature, and hence, huge quantity of heat is wasted. If this waste heat is recovered as a useful work for producing distilled water, then it will reduce the pollution as well as cost of fuel for distilled water production. Shell and Tube Heat exchanger is much useful for this purpose. In this project, an attempt is made to recover the waste heat from exhaust and use it to produce distilled water at micro level.Symmetric Submerged Multiple Tube Heat Exchanger (SSMTHE) with parallel flow concept made up of Stainless-Steel tube is designed and coupled with an IC engine. Double Pipe Counter Flow Condenser (DPCFC) is also designed for condensing the steam. The effectiveness of the designed heat exchanger varies between 36 % to 46 % and 39% to 62% at half and full load conditions. After one-hour volume of distilled water collected varies from 2.355 litres to 2.955 litres, which is 16.3% to 46% higher than that of the previous works. The performance of different heat exchangers is carried by means of rate of water yield of a heat exchanger. The designed heat exchanger produces about 230% and 160% increased rate of Water Yield of a Heat Exchanger (WYHE) compared to that of previous literatures. From the results the SSMTHE made of Stainless Steel (SS) tube produces a better output.
Abstract:Since discover oil in Bahrain, there are lot of pipelines moving across vacant areas in Bahrain to transfer crude oil from the excavation area towards exporting ports or refinery plants for the process of completion and production. Recently, according to the urban developing and expansion, these pipes are becoming within urban areas. Moreover, some of these pipes are no longer on duty, so there were many ideas to deal with it. The traditional way of removing these pipes are costly and needs much efforts and time. Dealing with this case should not follow the conventional way, and the believing of having this assignment does not just work, but it is a comprehensive thought. However, this assignment is an opportunity to analyze and study an actual challenging case spread in many locations in Bahrain. In addition, this practical assignment will enhance our understanding in many aspects, such as dealing with the existing multidisciplinary situation in the urban context of Bahrain, giving a solution and recommendations for such challenges. Moreover, it will provide more knowledge of the landscape street elements, which will add at the end to the overall urban quality. \nThere was a challenge in choosing the study area, which should have pipeline problems that Bahrain had so many cases. So, the reuse of the pipelines in the area to enhance the quality of the residences\' life and to transfer the hazard into a safe and secured civic magnet. The research was an assignment in the landscape architecture course. The main target was to train students to deal with real case professionally. Therefore, the selected pipeline case had a series of urban problems. It exposed to dramatic fire a few years ago, which caused different types of social, environmental and economic problems. A clear understanding and data collections were composed to enable the researchers in dealing with the case in hand.
Abstract:On-chip interconnect networks causes congestion which affects the performance in current system-on-chips. Code division multiple access (CDMA) has rigid delay, trimmed intervention expense and superior transfer capacity. Because of this features, itï¿½s been projected for On-Chip crossbars. In CDMA, the standard division is facilitated in the secret language bit by appointing a bounded quantity of unrelated(orthogonal) scattering codes of N chip range to the processing elements distributing the link. In the existing work overburden CDMA communicate (OCI) to improve the aptitude of CDMA based NoC (network-on-chip) crossbars by escalating the adding up to of good dispersion codes. In this paper, the overburden CDMA implemented and the normal adder is replaced with Han Carlson Adder (HCA) in OCI Crossbar at the time of addition. This extension of HCA gives high-speed parallel addition, reduction in power and area. Analogized with the existing OCI on a Cyclone-2 FPGA kit, the serial OCI attains greater transmission capacity, 30% less resource consumption, 25% power retaining and less delay, while the parallel OCI Crossbar attains N times greater transmission capacity, takes larger area and power. The OCI crossbar with HCA gives better results than the standard one.
Abstract:The pyrolytic behavior and kinetics of ginkgo biloba residue (GBR) were studied using nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermogravimetric experiments were carried out at various heating rates (10, 20, 30, and 40 °C/min). The final temperature of the experiment was maintained at 800 °C. As the heating rate increased during TGA, the curve shifted to the high-temperature region, the initial and final pyrolysis temperatures increased slightly. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the presence of useful functional groups in the original biomass. The activation energies of the raw materials were determined to be 148.71, 151.55 and 154.04 kJ/mol using the distributed activation energy (DAEM), Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), and Friedman models, respectively. Artificial neural network (ANN) models are developed and employed on co-pyrolysis thermal decomposition data to study the reaction mechanism by calculating Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The devolatilization curve was predicted from the calculated kinetic parameters, and the results were in good agreement with the experimental data.
Abstract:Layout design plays a vital role in any type of manufacturing system. Fixed area cellular layout problems are related to the placement or arrangement of production equipments or departments within the cell. A better placement of facilities contributes to the overall efficiency of operations and can reduce the total operating expenses. This paper proposed a new method for solving multi-objective fixed area cellular layout problems. The objectives are to minimize the total traveling distance of the products, minimize the total material handling cost and also minimize the number of backtracking movements. In this paper, some suitable techniques such as genetic algorithm, simulated annealing algorithm, artificial bee colony algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm have been applied on the bench mark problem and compared the results.
Abstract:A comparative investigation on conjugate heat transfer analysis of commercial air HVAC ducts were studied and compared using CFD analysis. Various cross sections of circular, elliptical, rectangular and square ducts were designed and analyzed using CFD. The CFD analysis was carried out with recommended parameters as a setup value. According to the CFD results, it is concluded that the circular ducts produced high efficient air flow without any thermal stress and defects. Other ducts designs produced turbulence due to their shapes. The circular ducts produced smooth transfer of air even the working cycle goes beyond its fatigue limit. These thermal fatigue improved HVAC duct system may use in aircrafts where high efficient duct air flow is required with high reliable duct safety.
Abstract:Optimization for all disciplines is very important and relevant. Optimization has played a key role in the design and operation of industrial reactors, separation processes, heat exchangers and complete plants in Chemical Engineering. In this paper, a novel hybrid meta-heuristic optimization algorithm which is based on Differential Evolution (DE), Gradient Evolution (GE) and Jumping Technique (+) named as Differential Gradient Evolution Plus (DGE+) is presented. The main concept of this hybrid algorithm is to enhance its exploration and exploitation ability. The proposed algorithm hybridizes the above mentioned algorithms with the help of an improvised dynamic probability distribution, additionally provides a new shake off method to avoid premature convergence towards local minima. The performance of DGE+ is investigated in thirteen benchmark unconstraint functions and the results are compared to the other state-of-the-art meta-heuristics. The comparison shows that the proposed algorithm is able to outperform the other state-of-the-art meta-heuristics in almost all benchmark functions. To evaluate the efficiency of the DGE+ it has also been applied to complex constrained non-linear chemical design problems such as optimal operation of alkylation unit, reactor network design, optimal design of heat exchanger network, optimization of an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor, the results of comparison revealed that the proposed algorithm is able to provide very compact, competitive and promising performance
Abstract:Hydrodynamics of semi-fluidized bed was investigated using water as liquid phase and sand & quartz as solid phase. The fluidizer was composed of Perspex column of 0.05 m internal diameter and 1 m height. The investigation was performed for the constant initial head position of 0.035 m and the restrain position was varied as 9, 10 and 11. The effect of restrain position, bed materials and particle size of bed materials on the hydrodynamic parameters were analyzed using with and without internals. Results showed that the increase of restrain position reduced the pressure drop due to the decrement in top backed bed height. The usage of internals decreased the bed pressure drop and the helical internal displayed the greater reduction in pressure drop due to more restriction to the movement of particles. Further, the particle size of bed material influenced on the bed pressure drop and the decrement in bed pressure was observed while increasing the particle size owing to more restriction was experienced by the large size particles. In addition, while comparing the effect of bed material on hydrodynamic parameters, the quartz particle exhibited more pressure drop compared to that of sand particle due to the superior density of the quartz particles.