Abstract:Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is performed on aluminum alloys in a solid condition. Aluminum alloys are used mainly as structuring materials in Marine, Automobile and Aerospace industries. Durability of aluminum alloy material was analyzed using the fatigue strength of the material in various environment conditions. In this study, a dissimilar aluminum alloy AA5083-AA6061 joint was fabricated using friction stir welding and the fatigue behavior of AA5083, AA6061 and AA5083-AA6061 materials were studied. The results of experiments showed the display of the maximum fatigue strength of 139 MPa at 1 × 106 cycles by the aluminum alloy AA6061 and the dissimilar weld joint of AA5083 and AA6061 exhibited the lowest fatigue strength of 26 MPa at 1 × 106 cycles due to the hook defect. Further, a finite element analysis was performed and the findings of simulation were compared with the results of the experiments. The simulation results were well in line with the findings of the experiments. Additionally, the EDS analysis performed at weld centre displayed a larger presence of Al and Mg elements in the weld interface.
Abstract:Sleep disorders occur to patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially clients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemodialysis patients teated by Cognitive Behavior Theraphy (CBT) can significantly improve sleep quality, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. Self-help exercise (LPD) is part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) that combines relaxation and dhikir. This study aims to find out the effect of modification of self-absorption exercise on sleep quality of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. This research type is Quasy-Experiment research with a pre-post test design control group design study. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was used for pre-post test in this study. The independent variables of the study were modification of self-absorption exercise given for 18 days and done 2 times per day. The dependent variable was sleep quality, with sub variable of subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction. The population of the study was PGK clients undergoing hemodialysis at Gambiran Hospital Kediri and met the criteria of the sample at the time of the research with purposive sampling technique which was divided into 11 treatment groups and 11 control groups. Mann Whitney test results obtained p = 0.004. The result showed that there was difference of sleep quality between those of the treatment groups and those of the control groups after LPD treatment, while Mann Whitney test result on sub variable of sleep quality only on subjective sleep quality showed there was difference between groups with p = 0,024. Based on the results of the study, the hospital, especially nurse staff, began to identify the problem of sleep disorders in clients with CKD with PSQI questionnaires and provide appropriate education issues of sleep disorders experienced by clients, and it can be suggested that the use of modification of self-freedom (self-submission) exercise as a companion therapy was effective to improve patient sleep quality CKD.
Abstract:Low power transmission can be done by polymer (a non-metallic) gears instead of metallic due its low weight and self lubricating property which reduces the self weight as well as the cost of machine. At the same time the non-metallic gears posses lesser load bearing and strength characteristics, higher wear loss, prone to thermal failure, etc. Hence, this study aims to improve the wear resistance of composite gear by including the GF and SG into the Nylon66 and test is conducted using fabricated the Gear Test Rig at various speeds and different load conditions for continuously 12.5 hrs. Three categories, based on the materials used, of spur gears are fabricated by adopting the Injection Moulding technique. The variation in percentage of wear loss follows a similar pattern at all speeds. The percentage of wear loss is lower at 600 rpm and higher at 1200 rpm. At constant speed, the increase in load raises the wear loss for all three categories. The SEM image shows a uniform wear loss and localized lump in C-1 gear, fractured glass fibres are exposed in the C-2 gear, surface defects without any deep crack in C-3 gear. Higher efficiency exists in GF+SG combination at all speeds and loads. The GF is very effective at lower load conditions; but SG is efficient for increased loads.
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Antenatal care is a service that women receive during pregnancy and is very important in helping to ensure that the mother and foetus are safe in pregnancy and childbirth. The antenatal care approach was emphasised at the time of the visit for normal pregnancy.\nAIM: The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between the role of responsive and empathic midwives in implementing ANC with ANC visits by pregnant women in Sabutung Health Center, Pangkep Regency.\nMETHODS: This research was a cross-sectional. A total 35 participants were selected using purposive sampling method. Data was collected by questionnaire; data analysis were performed using Chi-Square statistical tests with alternative fisher\'s exact test at a degree of confidence α = 0.05.\nRESULTS: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between the role of responsive midwives with ANC visits by pregnant women p = 0.012, and there was a significant relationship between the role of empathy midwives with ANC visits by pregnant women (p<0.001).\nCONCLUSION: There is a relationship between responsiveness and empathy and ANC visit of the mother. It is suggested that the Community Health Centre should improve the communication skills of the midwives in delivering antenatal care.
Abstract:A study was carried out in farmer’s fields of Bahawalnagar and Bahawalpur during Kharif-2017 and Kharif-2018 in order to evaluate the effect of various levels of Zinc on the yield and quality of cotton. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Five levels of Zinc 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kg ha-1 Zinc were applied. The results revealed the lowest average seed cotton yield of 2471 kg/ha and 2241 kg/ha in 2017 and 2018 respectively in control. While the highest yield of 2671 kg/ha and 2442 kg/ha was observed in 20 kg ha-1 Zinc treatment, respectively during 2017 and 2018 showing an increase of 8 % and 9% in yield over control. Maximum number of productive tillers per plant were observed in T5 (20 kg ha-1 Zinc) and minimum in T1 (control). Contrary to that the maximum plant height was observed in control in contrast to other treatments. The number of sympodial branches per plant, number of monopodial branches per plant were highest in T5 (20 kg ha-1 Zinc) and lowest in control. From the data it is evident that the plant height, plant population, number of sympodial branches per plant, and number of monopodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant and seed cotton yield were affected significantly by application of different doses of Zinc. While in case of plant population no any statistically significant difference was observed in all the treatments of Zinc. Hence the application of Zinc to cotton for better yield and quality is inevitable. \nKey words: Quality, yield, cotton, Zinc, fertilizer.
Abstract:Workflow scheduling is the most focused research issue in the on-demand clouds where the user requirement satisfaction like cost and bandwidth is more difficult. There is various research works has been conducted earlier towards performing reliable workflow scheduling with the aim of reducing cost or execution time. However those works lack to produce better result by compromising any attributes for attaining the goal. The existing work lacks from the security where the tasks might get corrupted during execution. To resolve this problem an Enhanced Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA) based IaaS Cloud Partial Critical Path (IC-PCP) Replication and Hyper Elliptic Curve Cryptography (EAFSAIPR with HECC) is proposed. The main goal is to perform better workflow scheduling which can complete the task execution before deadline given by the users. This is done by predicting the early start time and latest finish time using AFSA algorithm, so that task replication can be made to meet the soft deadline constraint. The task authentication is done efficiently using HEEC algorithm, so that corruption from malicious users can be avoided. The task replication is done securely using the cryptographic algorithm. The proposed EAFSAIPR with HECC algorithm that uses idle time of provisioned resources to replicate workflow tasks optimally. The proposed EAFSAIPR algorithm scheduler focused to ensure the lowest cost while serving a deadline set by the user. The experimental results show that the scheduler can find good schedules of deadlines being met and reduces the total execution time of applications as the budget available for replication increases.
Abstract:In this research study, the performance based seismic design of existing high rise buildings of Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan, was carried out. Three different buildings are checked for Tier-1, considering deficiencies of these buildings the Tier-2 is conducted and then these buildings were analyzed for existing capacity considering expected earthquake of intensity related to zone 2B. Afterwards, a suitable retrofitting strategy is adopted considering all design constraints and the buildings were again analyzed to check the acceptance of the retrofitting option. The options are taken in such a way that the architecture and usage of structure might not disturb. It is clear from the results that the buildings can be retrofitted without any change in appearance or change in plans. This option of retrofitting may help the stakeholder to save the building and life of the hundreds of people working in the offices in these buildings with much less cost than that of rebuild, in case of any strong earth shake.
Abstract:Nonholonomic properties induce the wheeled mobile robots to become severely nonlinear systems. The parameters of such a highly complex system are change with robot operation, and their parameters are not able to calculate precisely. To control such a nonlinear system, this paper introduces a combination of adaptive controller and PID controller. The cascaded controller is developed in order to assure the speed of the wheeled robotï¿½s wheels with DC motors for tracking the paths. This Adaptive PID controller yields better results when compared to conventional techniques. The speed of the WMR can be increased without deviating from its path. It also reduces the oscillations and prevailed during the path tracking. Hardware results show the efficacy of the controller in trajectory tracking of WMR.
Abstract:Inorganic fertilizers are considered the main source of water pollution in the intensively cultivated areas of Greece. Nitrates concentration in groundwater aquifer varies significantly between east and west part of Thessaly due to differences in precipitation which during the irrigation period is much higher in the western area of Thessaly.\nThe established monitoring network consists of two hundred seventy five representative, reliable and well distributed sampling points. The sampling took place twice (1st at the starting and 2nd at the end of the irrigation period). Maximum contents were recorded in East Thessaly for both sampling periods, while in total 16% of the samples were found at the nitrate vulnerable zone (>50 mg/l) and 4% at the potential vulnerable zone (40-50 mg/l). Subsequently, these variations were visually represented in thematic maps by using the Bayesian methodology, and clear differences were obvious between the western and eastern part of Thessaly. If is taken into account the overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation demands, it can be argued that the above mentioned reasons contribute substantially to pollution with nitrates. \nThe required N-fertilizer for crops varies and depends on a variety of factors. Among other soil type plays a dominant role, while nitrates inputs from groundwater in Thessaly could substitute 9.2 - 26.3% of the N fertilizer recommended for corn, and 6.4-19.0% for cotton. It was found that in eastern Thessaly the percentage of nitrogen which can be applied by irrigation water is approximately two fold higher compared to western Thessaly.\nPreliminary results indicated that a Code for Good Agricultural Practices should be implemented and farmers should apply rational farming practices. \nParticular attention should be paid to irrigation systems and farmers have to take into account both the amount of water and the quantity of nitrogenous fertilizers applied to the crops, in order to minimize its risks of losses. However in Thessaly, about 85-90% of farmers apply advanced irrigation systems regulating more precisely the water supply according to actual water requirements of crops. This reducing leaching risks of nitrates and downwards movement to groundwater aquifer.
Abstract:Radar emitter recognition is developed to adapt to the new radar technology and the increasingly complex electromagnetic environment. It is the key development direction in the field of electronic countermeasures. Aiming at the problems of low recognition rate and difficult feature extraction of specific radar emitter, this paper proposes classification and recognition methods based on LSTM, CNN and PSO_PF-SVM respectively. Firstly, the radar waveform is normalized to obtain the envelope and phase information, then the envelope front and phase features are aligned, and then the processed feature information is sent to two kinds of network models for feature extraction. The classifier is a support vector machine (SVM) optimized by particle swarm optimization particle filter (PSO_PF) algorithm, Finally, the extracted features are sent to the classifier to realize the recognition of specific radar emitter. Two kinds of network models are used to identify radar emitter based on envelope front and phase features respectively, which has good computational complexity and recognition effect under the condition of low SNR. Simulation results show that when the SNR is 9dB, the recognition rate of the four methods in this paper is over 95% for three radar emitters. At 15dB, the recognition rate of the two network models based on the phase characteristics is 100%.