Abstract:Introduction. Osteoarthritis is a common condition that affects older people, especially knee osteoarthritis. It can cause pain, muscle weakness, imbalance, and low functional activity of older people. Knee osteoarthritis affects muscles in not only the knee joint area but also those in the hip joint. To improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis, strengthening exercise is often conducted only on muscles in the knee joint area, but not muscles in the hip area. This study aimed to compare the effect of strengthening exercise conducted in knee joint muscles only with the strengthening exercise in both knee and hip muscles on pain, strength, balance, and functional activity.\nMethod. A pre- and posttest design was chosen as the design of this study. Two groups were formed in this study. Group 1 received strengthening exercise on knee joint muscles only, and Group 2 received strengthening exercise on knee joint and hip joint muscles. This study was conducted in Prima Physio Clinic for Group 1 and Tajuddin Chalid Hospital, Makassar for Group 2. On each group, there were ten subjects with osteoarthritis. The strengthening exercise was conducted for three times a week for four weeks. The outcome measure used was numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), manual muscle strength (MMT), Berg balance scale (BBS) and Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC). Manual muscle strength was measured in all major muscles of the joints: iliopsoas, gluteus, tensor fascia lata, quadriceps, and hamstring.\nResult. The statistical analysis was conducted using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney tests. In group 1 analysis, pain, balance, functional activity, and all major muscle strengths were found to be a statistically significant difference between baseline and four weeks post-exercise. In group 2 analysis, pain, muscle strength, balance, and functional activity were found to be a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The comparison between the two groups showed statistically significant differences in all muscle group strength except for hamstring. Pain, balance, functional activity, and hamstring strength were not statistically significantly different between the groups.\nConclusion. From the results, we concluded that the strengthening program for both knee and hip muscles is recommended than only to the affected joint muscles.
Abstract:The Distance Regularized Level Set Evolution (DRLSE) model is particularly sensitive to the initial contour. Due to the existence of the edge indication function based on the gradient information in the DRLSE model, the image of the segmentation of the non-homogeneous region and the edge is exceptionally complicated. Such complications cause severe interference to the image processing algorithm. In this paper, an image segmentation method based on SPF is proposed for the adverse effects for over-segmentation of the DRLSE model based on large balloon force and iteration number. The algorithm is implemented in three stages. Firstly, we use the region growth output as the initial contours of the DRLSE model after introducing an image preprocessing method based on the maximum inter-class variance. Secondly, the region growth outputs are taken into the DRLSE model by the SPF function based on the regional statistical information and the edge indication function using the gradient information. Thirdly, the scalability of the SPF function is used to correct the regional growth result, and the physician manually uses the labeled \"gold standard\" as the measure of the segmentation result. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified in different complex environments. Finally, the performance of the algorithm under various balloon forces for multiple iterations is analyzed. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can withstand greater balloon force and more iterations without causing over-segmentation
Abstract:New tests of unbalanced near replicates Lack-of-fit tests within clusters with parametric variance function will be introduced. The suggested tests are scores LOF test within clusters in the variance model, LOF test within clusters in means, and an overall LOF test within clusters in means or variances. Also, three special cases of balanced near replicate will be presented for the variance model, in means, and overall means or variances respectively.
Abstract:In this study, it was aimed to investigate the change in irisin and heat shock protein 70 level of an intense exhaustion exercise which is applied once in trained individuals.\nSixty volunteer men who participated in the study regularly attended at least three days a week. Blood samples were taken from the participants twice during resting position and after exhaustion exercise. Blood samples were separated into serum and plasma by centrifugation. Irisin and Hsp70 levels were determined in serum samples by ELISA method. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS package program. Paired Samples t test was used to determine the difference between pre-test and post-test values. The significance level was accepted as p <0.01.\nAs a result of the analysis, it was found that there was a significant difference statistically between pre and post-exercise values in levels of irisin and Hsp70 (p<0,01).\nAs a result; It has been shown that an exhaustion exercise increases irisin and Hsp70 levels in trained individuals. This result is thought to be explained as an increase in the level of irisin as an exercise factor and an increase in the Hsp70 level in parallel with the stress in the organism due to intensive exhaustion exercise.
Abstract:Frequency hopping spread spectrum communication (FHSS) are widely implemented in both modern civilian and military applications. It is important to sort out the frequency hopping (FH) network station signals from complex mixed signals. In this paper, a new FH network station signals sorting algorithm based on segmented quadratic space-time frequency distribution (Seg-QSTFD) and tensor decomposition is proposed for FH communication in underdetermined environment. Firstly, the time-domain signal received by linear array is transformed into the space-time frequency domain by quadratic space-time frequency distributions (QSTFDs), while extracting the position of self-term time-frequency points based on the preprocessed quadratic space-time-frequency matrix (QSTFM), and using the space-time-frequency value at the position to reconstruct the QSTFM. Then we proposed k-means algorithm to estimate FH signals frequencies and jumping time to obtain time frequency relationship diagram, based on the modified diagram to divide QSTFM into a series of Seg-QSTFD. Finally, we used third-order tensor decomposition algorithm, enhanced linear iterative and least alternating squares (ALS- ELS), to estimate the mixed matrix A(t) for each Seg-QSTFD and separate the time-frequency information, while we proposed time-frequency synthesis algorithm to recover time-domain signals, combined estimated direction of arrival (DOA), hop period (), power (P),frequency sequence () for each signal to realize FH network station signal sorting. The proposed FH network station signals sorting algorithm and joint diagonalization (JADE) algorithm benchmarked with the experiment. Furthermore, the results show that the proposed algorithm not only for the same-cycle synchronous multi-hopping hybrid network station signals, but also achieves better results for the non-synchronous multi-hopping hybrid network signals, and the method outperforms JADE method where the signal-interference ratio (SIR) of the recovered time domain signal at minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of -5dB,thatmean squared error (MSE) of the jumping time estimate meets the at SNR of -5dB.
Abstract:The problem of agency is classic and treated by the Agency Theory. On one side is the agent, which holds information to decision-making in the company which, in turn, is owned by the principal. There is a conflict of interests, because each individual possesses them differently. Therefore, the compensation can be a way of main control the actions of the agent. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the practices of earnings quality on executive compensation as a way to propose indicators to support the policies of executive compensation for performance. The sample is composed of 393 companies that disclosed the information on executive compensation in the period from 2007 to 2016, countries that comprise the European Union. The statistical technique applied was panel data that, after the validation testing of the model chosen by random effects. The results allow us to affirm that executive compensation packages are linked to the persistence of profits in larger companies. It was also found that the use of accruals reflect negatively on executive compensation, such that the practice of smoothing result, and the timely recognition of losses, even with weak relationship, presented a positive signal in relation to the compensation. The findings of the survey allowed to understand the influence of the practices of earnings quality on executive compensation in the member countries of the European Union and has contributed to the understanding of the market in general and for the academy, to expand the research on executive compensation and measures the performance of companies and analyze performance measurements distinct from those used until then.
Abstract:When applying direct seeding technologies, the straw left on the soil surface makes uniform seedling establishment difficult and more complex. The plain disc coulter is commonly used to cut straw in direct seeding system. The moisture content of the soil and straw has a considerable inﬂuence on the cutting process and cutting force requirement. The objectives of this research are to study the effect of a disc coulter equipped with two press-wheels on the straw cutting process and force needed for cutting (fixed-ends straw) at different soil and straw moisture contents. The results of the fixed-ends straw were compared with that of disc coulter without press-wheels (free ends straw). To simulating disc coulter equipped with two press-wheel, cutting knives and a pair of clips for holding the straw were fabricated and used during the experiment. TMS-PRO measuring instrument in the laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University was used in this study. Five straw moisture contents (STMC) (10.11, 18.9, 34.29, 46.83 and 54.80%), three different number of straw pieces (NSP) (1, 2 and 3), five soil moisture contents (SMC) (16.17, 19.28, 22.26, 26.18 and 30.16%) and three different knives sharpening angles (KSA) (1, 1.5 and 2 mm) were considered during the experiments. The results show that the free-ends straw was pushed into the soil (0% straw cut) when the SMC was greater than 22.26%, or the STMC was greater than 46.83% for all KSA and NSP. In the case of fixed straw, the percentage cut was 100% at all STMC, SMC, NSP, and KSA. The results also proved that the free ends straw cutting force increased with the increase of the STMC and KSA. Although the SMC had a considerable influence on the free-ends straw cutting force requirement, it did not affect the fixed-ends straw cutting force requirement. The force required to cut free-ends straw ranges between 122 – 300 N when the STMC, KSA, SMC, and the NSP were ranged between 10.11 - 18.90%, 1 – 2 mm, 16.17 – 19.28% and 1 -3 respectively. While the values of the fixed-ends straw cutting force were ranged between 134 – 510 N when the STMC varied between 10.11% - 54.80%, KSA between 1 – 2 mm and the NSP between 1 – 3 respectively. In fixed-ends straw cutting operation, the depth needed to cut the straw was increased with the increase of the SMC. The straw was cut at depths of 12, 23 and 19 mm when the SMC was 22.26, 26.18 and 30.6% respectively. We can conclude that pressing the straw on both sides during the cutting operation allows the cutting process to continue up to a soil and straw moisture content of 30.16% and 54% respectively.
Abstract:YouTube as a new media has been viral in Indonesia since 2010. Many Indonesian youths became popular as YouTubers (users of YouTube whose actively uploads videos on YouTube). Data of Google Marketing indicated Indonesia as the country with the largest population by viewing time on YouTube in the Asia Pacific in 2015. YouTube also on the 1st rank of the most viewed social media site in Indonesia (data by Alexa.com, 2016). One of the famous Indonesian YouTuber is Last Day Production (also known as LDP), who regularly uploads the situational drama, skits, and parody. All of the casts in LDP are Chinese Indonesians and in young age (under 30 years old). In Indonesian National Day 2016, LDP uploading the video, “Tipikal Anak Muda Indonesia” (Typical of Indonesian Youth) and exposed on how Indonesian youth now envisage their nationalism. LDP created this video in collaboration with Eka Gustiwana, another young famous YouTube musician, Aulion, and Kevin Anggara, another famous Indonesian YouTube. This video also became trending video in YouTube Indonesia around August 2016. Cyberculture theory became the approach in this research. The approaches for this research utilizes Cyber Culture Theory and Visualizing Methods. Unit analysis of this research are the viral video, text, music, and what the LDP portrays in this video.
Abstract:The Wireless medical sensor network consists of group of sensors to monitor the patient health status. It is used by the patients who have chronic diseases and also by the people who needs to monitor their health status. The collected patient data are transmitted to the doctor’s place or to the hospital server for diagnosis. While transmission, the data can be hacked by the attackers. As the patient data is most sensitive it requires confidentiality, integrity and authenticity. At the same time, the security techniques applying on medical data has to be lightweight. As it has to reduce energy consumption and perform fast data transmission. So, the paper presents the lightweight cryptographic methods and compares the performance of lightweight symmetric algorithms. From the comparison, the Speck algorithm is chosen as the best lightweight symmetric algorithm and combined with Cipher text Policy –Attribute Based Encryption to provide privacy to the medical data. The experimental result proves the lightweight cryptographic algorithm reduces energy consumption and also provides required security to WMSN. The comparison of the computation time and energy consumption of the proposed system with the existing systems is shown in results.
Abstract:This research paper simulatesType1 and interval type2 fuzzy controller in MATLAB. Modification in KarnikMendel Algorithm have been proposed. To calculate interval type2 fuzzy system s output, a main step called Typereduced was used for this operation, based on KarnikMendel Algorithm which use arithmetic mean to calculate control output. We propose to change the arithmetic mean by cubic mean. The modified interval type2 controller will be compared to type1 fuzzy controller to control manipulator robot. Efficient dynamics were developed as per Matlab, which requires a smaller amount of time for simulation. The performance of two fuzzy systems with and without noise are compared in terms of integral of squared error. The amount of errors in case of modified interval Type 2 fuzzy controller is around four times smaller than Type1 fuzzy controller in the presented work. The proposed modification in type reduction of KarnikMendel algorithm for interval Type2 fuzzy set is showing best performance.